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By: Z. Konrad, M.A.S., M.D.
Assistant Professor, Osteopathic Medical College of Wisconsin
Intrinsic causes of cardiac failure include valvular disruption anxiety attacks symptoms discount lexapro 10 mg mastercard, myocardial infarction anxiety symptoms like ms cheap generic lexapro canada, and dysrhythmias anxiety symptoms yahoo buy discount lexapro online. Extrinsic causes of cardiac failure include pericardial tamponade and tension pneumothorax. There are many risk factors but in trauma patients thromboembolism is often associated with immobilization. Symptoms include tachypnea, chest pain, hypoxemia, tachycardia, and pulmonary infiltrates on conventional chest radiographs, although chest radiography examinations are often normal in appearance. Ventilation and perfusion scanning, pulmonary arteriography, and Doppler ultrasonography studies may also be performed to obtain a diagnosis of thromboembolism. Fat embolism is the most common form of embolism causing vascular occlusion following trauma. Fat embolism typically results from fracture of the long bones and pelvis, causing pulmonary effects of hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension. Air embolism occurs when an open vein is at or below atmospheric pressure and the air is sucked into the vessel and travels through the circulation. Physical Examination An attending physician will conduct an examination on individuals presenting with extremity injury and will use the basic physical examination elements of visual inspection, palpation, and auscultation to assess the extent of the injuries. The 194 objectives of the visual inspection are to detect deformities, angulations, swelling, edema, and discoloration. The physician will use palpation skills to determine if defects, deformities, tightness, crepitus, and points of tenderness are present. During the palpation evaluation, the physician will also check the usual pulses, capillary refill, and skin temperature. Penetrating or blunt trauma and fractures can cause injury to the major blood vessels supplying the limbs. Such injuries can be direct laceration or stretching, which causes the vessel lining (intima) to sag. Vascular injuries have been associated with minor blunt upper extremity trauma and may easily be missed or neglected leading to long-term adverse outcomes. The brachial, radial, and ulnar pulses are evaluated when the upper extremities are involved. The femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, and doralis pulse sites are evaluated when the lower extremities are involved. The physician will also perform a neuromuscular examination prior to any manipulation or intervention of extremity injuries. For upper and lower extremity injury, all sensory and motor components will be evaluated. Sensory function is tested by light touch and two point discrimination, which is performed by placing a sharp instrument against the skin approximately one centimeter (cm) apart. The physician will move sharp instruments closer together until reaching a distance at which the patient can no longer distinguish between points one and two. The physician will also evaluate muscle function by observing active movement and evaluating muscle strength against resistance. Upper extremity motor and sensory components include: Deltoid muscle-Axillary nerve Shoulder external rotation-Suprascapular nerve Biceps-Musculocutaneous nerve Thumb interphalangeal extensor-Radial nerve Index finger flexor-Median nerve Interossel-Ulnar nerve For the lower extremity, nerve testing should include the femoral nerve, sciatic nerve and its major branches (peroneal, saphenous, and tibial nerves). Compartment syndromes most frequently occur in association with crush injuries, fractures, burns, snake bites, tight casts, and a hematoma within a compartment. Compartment syndrome can also occur when a trauma victim has been lying for some time across a limb with the body weight occluding arterial blood supply. The lower leg and forearm are the most common sites for a compartment syndrome because tight fascia encases the muscle compartments in these regions. The patient with compartment syndrome often complains of severe limb pain that seems out of proportion to the injury. Two things occur from crush injury; local effects and generalized systemic effects. Local crush injury occurs when weight is allowed to push on tissue for hours, crushing the musculoskeletal structure. As the muscle tissue disintegrates and myoglobin, potassium, and phosphorus leak into the circulation, a systemic crush syndrome results.
The slitlike beam is sometimes used to anxiety symptoms last for days cheap generic lexapro canada assess elevations or concavities in the retina anxiety fear buy cheap lexapro 20 mg line, the green (or red-free) beam to anxiety xanax order lexapro 20 mg without a prescription detect small red lesions, and the grid to make measurements. You should be seeing the optic disc-a yellowish orange to creamy pink oval or round structure that may fill your field of gaze or even exceed it. Of interest, the ophthalmoscope magnifies the normal retina about 15 times and the normal iris about 4 times. Retinal structures then look much smaller than usual, and you can see a much larger expanse of fundus. You can tell which direction is central by noting the angles at which vessels branch-the vessel size becomes progressively larger at each junction as you approach the disc. Now, bring the optic disc into sharp focus by adjusting the lens of your ophthalmoscope. If both you and the patient have no refractive errors, the retina should be in focus at 0 diopters. For example, if the patient is myopic (nearsighted), rotate the lens disc counterclockwise to the minus diopters; in a hyperopic (farsighted) patient, move the disc clockwise to the plus diopters. The horizontal diameter is usually less than half the horizontal diameter of the disc. In a normal person, pulsations in the retinal veins as they emerge from the central portion of the disc may or may not be present. Loss of venous pulsations in pathologic conditions like head trauma, meningitis, or mass lesions may be an early sign of elevated intracranial pressure. Arteries Color Size Light Reflex (reflection) Veins Dark red Larger Inconspicuous or absent Light red Smaller (2/3 to 4/5 the diameter of veins) Bright I Follow the vessels peripherally in each of four directions, noting their relative sizes and the character of the arteriovenous crossings. Identify any lesions of the surrounding retina and note their size, shape, color, and distribution. At first, you may repeatedly lose your view of the retina because your light falls out of the pupil. I Finally, by directing your light beam laterally or by asking the patient to look directly into the light, inspect the fovea and surrounding macula. Except in older people, the tiny bright reflection at the center of the fovea helps to orient you. Lesions of the retina can be measured in terms of "disc diameters" from the optic disc. I Macular degeneration is an important cause of poor central vision in the elderly. Types include dry atrophic (more common but less severe) and wet exudative, or neovascular. Undigested cellular debris, called drusen, may be hard and sharply defined, or soft and confluent with altered pigmentation, as seen on the following page. Papilledema signals increased intracranial pressure from such serious conditions as trauma, mass lesions, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or meningitis. Look for opacities in the vitreous or lens by rotating the lens disc progressively to diopters of around +10 or +12. Vitreous floaters may be seen as dark specks or strands between the fundus and the lens. Inspect each auricle and surrounding tissues for deformities, lumps, or skin lesions. If ear pain, discharge, or inflammation is present, move the auricle up and down, press the tragus, and press firmly just behind the ear. Movement of the auricle and tragus (the "tug test") is painful in acute otitis externa (inflammation of the ear canal), but not in otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear). To see the ear canal and drum, use an otoscope with the largest ear speculum that the canal will accommodate. To straighten the ear canal, grasp the auricle firmly but gently and pull it upward, backward, and slightly away from the head. Nontender nodular swellings covered by normal skin deep in the ear canals suggest exostoses. Cerumen, which varies in color and consistency from yellow and flaky to brown and sticky or even to dark and hard, may wholly or partly obscure your view.
Microfilariae may also migrate to anxiety kids purchase 20 mg lexapro otc the eye anxiety symptoms mimic heart attack quality lexapro 5 mg, causing blindness (since the black fly vector breeds in rivers and streams anxiety symptoms jaw spasms buy lexapro without a prescription, this is often referred to as "river blindness"). Diagnosis is made by demonstrating microfilariae in superficial skin biopsies, or adult worms in a nodule. Microfilariae can often be seen in the eye (cornea and anterior chamber) by slit lamp examination. It kills microfilariae and prevents the microfilariae from leaving the uteri of adult worms. The manufacturer (Merck) has donated the drug to the World Health Organization for a program to erad icate Onchocerca from the planet. As humans are the only reservoir, treating people in endemic areas for 10 years (as planned) will prevent the birth of new microfi lariae while all the adult worms (which have long life spans) die of old age. Dracunculus medinensis Wuchereria bancroPi and Brugia malayi (Elephantiasis) Wuchereria bancrofii and Brugia malayi both cause a lymphatic infection that can result in chronic leg swelling. Wuchereria infection is endemic to the Pacific Is lands and much of Africa, while Brugia is endemic to the Malay Peninsula and is also seen in much of Southeast Asia. The transmitted microfilariae mature into adults within the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes of the gen itals and lower extremities. Mature adults mate, and their offspring (microfilariae) enter nearby blood vessels. Frequent infections in endemic areas result in acute febrile episodes, associated with headaches and swollen inguinal lymph nodes. Occasionally, following repeated exposures, fibrous tissue will form around dead filariae that remain within lymph nodes. The fibrous tissue plugs up the lymphatic system, which results in swelling of the legs and genitals. This chronic disfiguring manifestation is called elephantiasis because the extremities take on the appearance of elephant legs. Diagnosis is made by the identification of microfilar iae in blood drawn at nighttime. You see, the drug Diethylcarbamazine is used to treat the filarial infec tions caused by Wuchereria bancrofii, Brugia malayi, Loa loa, and Onchocerca uoluulus. These filariae chronically infect the lymphatics, causing lymph obstruction, giant In 1986, there were a n estimated 3. Eradication efforts led by the World Health Organization, combined with funding by the Gates Foundation, have led to a dramatic decrease in reported cases as of 2005. Because there is no effective drug treat ment, eradication efforts were via simple public health measures: identification of persons with worms that are actively migrating from their bodies and restricting these persons from bathing in the public water supply. This very interesting tissue-invasive nematode lives as a larval form inside intermediate hosts: African and Asian freshwater copepods (tiny crustaceans). When a person drinks water containing the microscopic crus taceans, the larvae penetrate the intestine and move deep into subcutaneous tissue, where the adults develop and then mate. The male is thought to die, but the female grows over the course of a year to a size of 100 cm! She then migrates to the skin and a loop of her body pokes out and exposes her uterus. When the uterus comes into con tact with water, thousands of motile larvae are released. Persons infected with Dracunculus medinensis will expe rience allergic symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, hives and breathlessness, during the larval release. Cutaneous Larval Migrans Also called creeping eruption, this intensely pru ritic, migratory skin infection commonly occurs in the Southeastern U. The larvae of dog and cat hookworms penetrate the skin and migrate beneath the epidermis. As these larvae move (a few centimeters per day), an allergic response is mounted, resulting in a raised, red, itchy rash that moves with the advancing larvae. Human tissue-invasive nematodes such as the hook worm (Necator americanus) and Strongyloides sterco ralis can produce similar creeping eruptions. However, cercariae (mature larvae) and eggs briskly stimulate the immune system, and are responsible for the systemic illness caused by this infection.
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