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Note: Income inelasticity measures the sensitivity of consumers to heart attack jack 1 life 2 live indapamide 2.5 mg low cost income changes arrhythmia bradycardia buy cheap indapamide 1.5mg line. Traditional Markets Geography and Characteristics Traditional markets can be found primarily in South and Central Asia (Afghanistan arteria yahoo best purchase indapamide, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan), Sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific, and Latin America. Traditional markets are competitive markets characterized by a high degree of product diversity, a lack of product standardization, low levels of market concentration, low barriers to product entry into the market, lack of mass commercialization, and the absence of multinational tobacco corporations. These markets are organized primarily as cottage industries, with informal production, distribution, and retail chains. Because the methods used to calculate these prices are not known, prices should not be compared across products or countries. The main difference between the traditional and modern markets is the efficiency and effectiveness of tax collection. There are gaps in consumption and price data, and the absence of standard packaging makes it difficult to calculate unit prices. Another study from India used micro-level data to estimate that a 10% increase in the price of gutka would decrease consumption by 5. Greater affordability may explain the growing consumption of chewing tobacco in India. Summary and Conclusions the tax system that best suits public health goals is likely to be country-specific. Another option would be to equalize tax at high rates across all tobacco products to limit substitution. Best practice for cigarette taxation favors the use of a specific tax that is regularly adjusted for inflation because it reduces the price gap between the less expensive (most affordable) and more expensive products. For example, reducing the content of tobacco in a product reduces 172 Smokeless Tobacco and Public Health: A Global Perspective the tax burden if the specific excise tax depends on the tobacco weight of a product. On the other hand, lowering the declared value of a product reduces its tax burden if the tax is levied ad valorem. Answers to these questions will have implications for the design of an efficient tobacco tax regime. System improvements, such as switching from taxing producers based on production volume to taxing based on production capacity, can theoretically increase the efficiency of collecting taxes. A standard unit can be based on a dose, the weight of tobacco, or the weight of a product. The weight of a product includes its water content and the weight of any additives, which is especially important in smokeless tobacco. The weight of tobacco refers to the weight of dry leaf in the product, which will be smaller than the total weight of the product. A dose is equal to the average amount of a product used in a single session, but not all products are sold in pre-portioned single servings. Using the weight of tobacco as a standard measurement focuses on the primary concern of tobacco use. Although information on total product weight is usually readily available in countries that have specific excise tax regimes, this standard would tax products with higher tobacco density. This discrepancy in taxation rates can be leveled by setting different tax rates for different types of tobacco products. Smokeless tobacco products should meet an equivalent standard to shift discussions of smokeless tobacco and cigarette tax structures in the direction of tobacco tax structures. New Delhi: Regional Office of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease; 2008. European Union policy on smokeless tobacco: a statement in favour of evidence-based regulation for public health. The prevalence of betel-quid and tobacco chewing among the Bangladeshi community resident in a United Kingdom area of multiple deprivation. The cigarette century: the rise, fall, and deadly persistence of the product that defined America.
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Global Prevalence of Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Youth and Adults Notes: Prevalence shown for countries with national-level data blood pressure medication beta blockers side effects purchase indapamide 1.5mg amex. Prevalence (%) of current use of smokeless tobacco-men and women Notes: Prevalence shown for countries with national-level data hypertension 180120 buy indapamide line. A rate for males and females combined was not available for Ethiopia blood pressure app for iphone cost of indapamide, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Saudi Arabia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Finland, Moldova, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Maldives, Timor-Leste. For each of these countries, a total figure was calculated by averaging the available male and female rates. Countries in the South-East Asia Region generally appear to have higher rates than those in other regions. Of the 64 countries with national estimates, 20 were in the African Region, 5 in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 16 in the European Region, 8 in the Americas Region, 8 in the South-East Asia Region, and 7 in the Western Pacific Region. Subnational estimates were reported for 4 countries in the African Region and 1 each in the Americas, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific Regions. Six of these were located in the South-East Asia Region (only 7 countries in that region had reports on overall prevalence). In the Americas Region, the highest prevalence of use among adults was in the United States (3. Estimated prevalence rates for males and for females were added together to get an overall estimate. It is important to note that these three countries are in the South-East Asia Region. Number (in millions) and proportion (%) of smokeless tobacco users among adults in 70 countries, by World Health Organization region *Because only ever use of smokeless tobacco was reported for South Africa, it was excluded from the calculations. In 36 (63%) of the 57 countries that measured use nationally among youth, at least 5. In general, prevalence among boys was higher in countries in the South-East Asia and African Regions than in other regions. Prevalence among girls fell short of this threshold in the Yaounde section of Cameroon (4. In most of the countries with data available for both women and men, men were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco. In three countries in the African Region, one country in the Americas Region, and one country in the South-East Asia Region, differences were quite modest, but women (shown second) had a slightly higher rate: Bangladesh (26. Men and adults from rural areas use these products at a higher rate than women and urban residents. Quit ratios among adults (aged 15 years and older) were low in both Bangladesh and India, although slightly higher in Bangladesh than in India (5. These data demonstrate some similar patterns of use across countries and differences both within and across countries.
The health consequences of smoking-50 years of progress: a report of the Surgeon General blood pressure medication yellow pill cheap 2.5 mg indapamide with amex. Department of Health and Human Services blood pressure of 10060 2.5 mg indapamide otc, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hypertension screening icd 9 2.5mg indapamide, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2014 [accessed 2014 Feb 14]. Menthol cigarettes and the public health: review of the scientific evidence and recommendations. Flavored and nonflavored smokeless tobacco products: rate, pattern of use, and effects. Appendix A Description of Representative Products From Four Broad Categories of Smokeless Tobacco Products Used Globally Blank page. Description of Representative Products From Four Broad Categories of Smokeless Tobacco Products Used Globally the smokeless tobacco products presented here are grouped into categories based on chemical composition as revealed by product packaging and chemical data that are presently available; this view of product composition is likely to change as additional data become available. This categorization does not indicate the safety or the addictive properties of a product, product type, or category, but is intended to highlight constituents of concern and may aid in further investigation and research. Category 4 products, although similar in some ways to products in other categories, contain agents such as khat, caffeine, and coumarin, which warrant individual consideration. Product name (other names) Added ingredients Region*/country of use Mode of use Production Form/type of tobacco Category 1. Additional plant-related ingredients such as ginger, pepper, and camphor, among others, may be used. Sodium carbonate, moisturizers, salt (sodium chloride), sweeteners, flavorings, water Commercial Tobacco leaves Licorice, sweeteners Cottage Tobacco (sundried, flaked) Commercial Tobacco (finely ground) Form/type of tobacco H Commercial Tobacco (heat-treated, pasteurized) A, H, N Custom Tobacco (fermented, fire-cured) Tobacco leaves (dry) Tobacco (dry) Tobacco (dark and air-cured leaf) Tobacco Tobacco Tobacco leaf extracts and sometimes sweetener or flavorings Water Slaked lime or other alkaline agents, spices, vegetable dyes, and sometimes areca nut and/or silver flecks Flavorings may be added. H Commercial Tobacco (fermented, air- or fire-cured) Tobacco leaf (dried) Tobacco Caffeine, flavorings (spices, essential oils, extracts), sweeteners, inorganic salts, humectants, preservatives, ginseng, B and C vitamins One or more ingredients: tonka bean, clove, cinnamon powder, camphor, Peruvian cocoa, cassava, ashes from select trees Areca nut (fofal), slaked lime, noura, betel leaf (tombol leaf), catechu, and khat Production category definitions: Commercial: Product is commercially manufactured (large-scale, branded). Cottage: Product is manufactured by local, small-scale industry (sometimes family-run business, not branded). Smokeless tobacco products can take a variety of forms, are available commercially, and can be custommade or manufactured in small factories. A Photo courtesy of Olalekan Ayo-Yusuf, University of Pretoria Product Types, Modes of Absorption, and Main Geographic Locations Ghana traditional snuff (tawa) this local dry snuff, often called "tawa," is prepared by mixing the dried tobacco leaf with some chemicals such as saltpeter (potassium nitrate) and grinding it into a fine powder. It may be held in the mouth or used nasally to induce sneezing to "lighten" the head; it may also be used as a depressant or stimulant. The custom-made traditional mix is prepared by hand-mixing finely ground sun-dried tobacco leaf with ash from local plants. Although no data are available specifically on the prevalence of neffa use, in the Algerian provinces of Oran, Constantine, and Setif, youth prevalence of tobacco use other than cigarettes was 7. Its use is most common among women and people living in rural areas, as well as individuals who are older, black, or have less education and income. It is locally produced from dry fermented tobacco that is pulverized and mixed with natron/atron (a B-3 African Traditional Snuff Products No data are available specifically on the prevalence of dry snuff use, but the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey found that 3. Trends in adult tobacco use from two South African Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1998 and2003. For additional information on African traditional snuff products, please refer to Chapter 12: Smokeless Tobacco Use in the African Region. B-4 Betel Quid With Tobacco etel quid is commonly used in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region. It can be prepared in a variety of ways depending on the region, but usually contains areca nuts, slaked lime, and catechu (extract of the Acacia catechu tree) wrapped in a betel leaf. Chewing betel quid without tobacco is an ancient practice in India; this product is known as "tambula" in Sanskrit. Additional ingredients vary regionally according to local preference, and can include cardamom, saffron, cloves, camphor, aniseed, turmeric, mustard, or sweeteners. Tobacco may be used raw, sun-dried, or roasted, and then finely chopped or powdered. Slaked lime and sometimes catechu are smeared on a betel leaf, then the betel leaf is folded into a funnel shape, and tobacco, areca nut, and any other ingredients are added. The top of the funnel is folded over, resulting in a quid, which is placed in the mouth and chewed. For additional information on betel quid (paan), please refer to the following chapters: Chapter 10: Smokeless Tobacco Use in the European Region; Chapter 11: Smokeless Tobacco Use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region; Chapter 13: Smokeless Tobacco Use in the South-East Asia Region; and Chapter 14: Smokeless Tobacco Use in the Western Pacific Region.
As these changes have proved to arrhythmia hyperkalemia purchase indapamide with amex be unavoidable prehypertension yahoo buy indapamide 2.5 mg visa, the dosage of the anticonvulsant has to arteria appendicularis cheap 1.5 mg indapamide with mastercard be adjusted after the change, preferably assisted by measurement of the serum level. Phenytoin has also a long half-life time, which is furthermore dosedependent, being longer at higher doses, and it may take up to two weeks before it becomes effective. As it is slightly irritating to the stomach, it should always be given after a meal, and when the dosage is high, it might be better to divide it into two doses. In the beginning of the treatment drowsiness and dizziness occur, and occur again when the dosage becomes too high. It does not have a long halflife time and therefore it cannot be given once daily. It should be given twice daily and when combined with other drugs it must be given three times daily. The main indications are the generalized absences, myoclonic seizures, and the drop attacks. When phenobarbitone cannot be used as prophylaxis for febrile convulsions, valproate can be used instead. Although its pharmacodynamic action in the central nervous system exceeds its presence in serum, it should be given three times daily in order to avoid high peak concentrations. The specific side-effects are increase in body weight, loss of hair, and gastric irritation. The risk of spina bifida is reduced by supplementing folate in all women at risk of being pregnant. If other seizure types are present in the same patient, other medicines have to be added to control these other seizure types. It is usually added when there is not sufficient control of the seizures, often in children with drop attacks and myoclonic seizures. It is also used to abort a febrile convulsion to prevent a prolonged febrile convulsion. It should be given intravenously, but if the vein cannot be found, the same solution can be given rectally. Newer drugs, such as vigabatrin, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, felbamate, gabapentin, topiramate, and levetiracetam are not discussed as they are not widely available on the African market. If side-effects appear and the seizures are not yet controlled a second drug is introduced and the first drug continued at the level before the side-effects appeared. Only when both drugs have been tried alone up to a level where side-effects occur may a combination of the two drugs be tried. In a small number of cases (often brain damaged small children) a third drug has to be added, or it has to be accepted that in some cases adequate seizure control cannot be achieved. In many cases, the first drug will soon be effective, but in some cases it will take many months before the most effective treatment is found. During this difficult period the support and advice of the Epilepsy Aide (page 79) will be extremely important for the patient and his relatives. Elimination half-life time Both phenobarbitone and phenytoin have a long half-life time (the time it takes to reduce the concentration of the drug to 50% as it is eliminated, metabolized and excreted). It takes about five times the half-life time before the drug reaches its therapeutic level and the steady state in the blood (see details of individual drugs in Appendix B). It has to be explained carefully to the patient and his caretakers that the seizures will not stop immediately after the medication has begun, but that a change will be noticed only after some weeks. Because of this long half-life time of phenobarbitone and phenytoin it is not necessary to give these drugs three times daily. In newborns the half-life time is even longer and drugs have to be administered with great caution. Carbamazepine and valproate have a much shorter half-life time; their increments should be given weekly, the therapeutic level is reached much quicker.
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