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By: D. Flint, M.S., Ph.D.
Vice Chair, Marist College
Global health and immigration Increasing transportation of people hypertension teaching plan buy genuine exforge, food and consumer goods is breaking down previous geographic boundaries heart attack kiss purchase generic exforge. Persons with disabilities Persons with physical heart attack cover by sam tsui and chrissy costanza of atc buy exforge without a prescription, mental, or sensory disabilities have unique needs and may require health and social services to be provided in alternative ways. Homeless persons Homeless persons have unique needs due to their physical lack of basic shelter and ability to bath and prepare food safely. In addition, being homeless is associated with many other conditions such as mental health and may require health and social services to be provided in alternative ways. Challenges at the extremes of the age continuum the elderly and very young children both share the challenges of being at high risk for certain medical conditions. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome) as well as being very vulnerable to changes in the determinants of health. For example, children living in poverty or poor seniors living in isolation are both at high risk for adverse health outcomes. Hypoaldosteronism (type 4 renal tubular acidosis, aldosterone deficiency/resistance, adrenal insufficiency, dysfunction of distal renal tubule) ii. Decreased tubular flow rate (severe effective arterial volume depletion or cardiomyopathy) Key Objectives 2 Differentiate severe, true hyperkalemia, a potentially lethal condition for which treatment is the first consideration, from pseudohyperkalemia, and then assess for causal conditions. Distinguish between causes of hyperkalemia by ruling out redistribution and intake problems quickly, and concentrating on the more common renal causes. Redistribution (alkalemia, insulin therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis,ОІ-adrenergic drugs) 3. Diarrhea (villous adenoma, laxative abuse) Key Objectives 2 Assess intake and shift of potassium into cells, but select increased loss as the category into which most problems fall. Objectives 2 Through efficient, focused, data gathering: Differentiate between gastrointestinal and renal losses (ask about diuretic use, vomiting, diarrhea, whether patient is diabetic). Contrast the hypokalemic conditions associated with hypertension from those associated with hypovolemia. Outline the relationship between potassium intake, the distribution of potassium between intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, and urinary potassium excretion. Identify the principal cells of the cortical collecting tubule as the main determinant of potassium secretion; list factors that stimulate potassium secretion. List factors affecting translocation of potassium between the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments. This means that psychosocial issues as well as biological issues need to be addressed. Pre-conception Initial presentation First trimester/Second trimester/Third trimester Pre-labor (counsel for preparation of labor) Key Objectives 2 Develop an appropriate relationship and rapport with prenatal patients; if possible, counsel about pregnancy prior to conception; determine whether the patient is pregnant and estimate the date of confinement. Objectives 2 Through efficient, focused, data gathering: Elicit factors that contribute to estimation of date of confinement. Identify physiological changes characteristic of pregnancy in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester; determine whether pregnancy is progressing satisfactorily (normal pregnancy symptoms), or complications are present (hyperemesis, pain, bleeding). List investigations for a patient with Rh negative blood type and list indications for anti-D globulin. Discuss recommendations for gestational diabetes and maternal screening in 2nd trimester. Discuss recommendations for screening for proteinuria and glycosuria in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester. List potential complications associated with smoking, alcohol in pregnancy (maternal and neonatal). Counsel patient on safe and unsafe medications during pregnancy, physical and sexual activity, travel, vaccines. Outline management of urinary tract infections in pregnancy, nausea and vomiting, and constipation. Outline initial management of a woman with symphyseal fundal height measurement significantly larger or smaller than expected. Counsel patient regarding breast-feeding; counsel regarding maternal serum screening. Non-pregnant women of childbearing age who may become pregnant should receive all clinically indicated immunizations at least three months prior to conception.
Two essential phenomena always distinguish irreversible from reversible cell injury blood pressure quit smoking 80 mg exforge amex. Inability of the cell to blood pressure medication non prescription cheap 80mg exforge fast delivery reverse mitochondrial dysfunction on reperfusion or reoxygenation arrhythmia icd 9 buy exforge 80 mg visa. Disturbance in cell membrane function in general, and in plasma membrane in particular. These biochemical changes have effects on the ultrastructural components of the cell. Calcium influx: Mitochondrial damage As a result of continued hypoxia, a large cytosolic influx of calcium ions occurs, especially after reperfusion of irreversibly injured cell. Activated phospholipases: Membrane damage Damage to membrane function in general, and plasma membrane in particular, is the most important event in irreversible cell injury. Increased cytosolic influx of calcium in the cell activates endogenous phospholipases. These, in turn, degrade membrane phospholipids progressively which are the main constituent of the lipid bilayer membrane. Intracellular proteases: Cytoskeletal damage the normal cytoskeleton of the cell (microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments) which anchors the cell membrane is damaged due to degrada tion by activated intracellular proteases or by physical effect of cell swelling producing irreversible cell membrane injury. Irreversible damage to the nucleus can be in three forms: i) Pyknosis: Condensation and clumping ii) Karyorrhexis: Fragmentation iii) Karyolysis: Dissolution. Lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes: Lysosomal damage, cell death and phagocytosis the lysosomal membranes are damaged and result in escape of lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes. The dead cell is eventually replaced by masses of phospholipids called myelin figures which are either phagocytosed by macrophages or there may be formation of calcium soaps. Liberated enzymes leak across the abnormally permeable cell membrane into the serum, the estimation of which may be used as clinical parameters of cell death. From ischaemia to reversible injury When the period of ischaemia is of short duration, reperfusion with resupply of oxygen restores the structural and functional state of the injured cell i. From ischaemia to irreversible injury Another extreme is when much longer period of ischaemia has resulted in irreversible cell injury during ischaemia itself i. From ischaemia to reperfusion injury When ischaemia is for somewhat longer duration, then restoration of blood supply to injured but viable cells. The mechanism of reperfusion injury by free radicals is complex but following three aspects are involved: 1. Free radicals are intermediate chemical species having a single unpaired electron in its outer orbit. Cytotoxicity of free radicals Free radicals are formed in physiologic as well as pathologic processes. The net effect of free radical injury in physiologic and disease states, therefore, depends upon the rate of their formation and rate of their elimination. However, if not degraded, then free radicals are highly destructive to the cell since they have electron-free residue and thus bind to all molecules of the cell; this is termed oxidative stress. Conditions with free radical injury (i) Ischaemic reperfusion injury; (ii) Ionising radiation by causing radiolysis of water; (iii) Chemical toxicity; (iv) Chemical carcinogenesis; (v) Hyperoxia (toxicity due to oxygen therapy); (vi) Cellular ageing; (vii) Killing of microbial agents; (viii) Inflammatory damage; (ix) Destruction of tumour cells; (x) Athero sclerosis. Antioxidants Antioxidants are endogenous or exogenous substances which inactivate the free radicals. Incoming activated neutrophils utilise oxygen quickly (oxygen burst) and release large excess of oxygen free radicals. Cyanide kills the cell by poisoning mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase thus blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Conversion to reactive toxic metabolites this mechanism involves metabolic activation to yield ultimate toxin that interacts with the target cells. The target cells in this group of chemicals may not be the same cell that metabolised the toxin. Radiation injury to human by accidental or therapeutic exposure is of importance in treatment of persons with malignant tumours as well as may have carcinogenic influences. Other synonyms used are cloudy swelling (for gross appearance of the affected organ) and vacuolar degeneration (due to cytoplasmic vacuolation). Hydropic swelling is an entirely reversible change upon removal of the injurious agent.
Along the lymphatic vessels are swellings (lymph nodes) that contain immune cells (primarily B-cells) heart attack in men buy exforge 80 mg with visa. These areas provide a place for antigens from microbes to blood pressure kit walgreens cheap 80 mg exforge overnight delivery first interact with the adaptive immune system and allow its activation blood pressure ranges uk buy discount exforge on-line. You can think of lymph nodes as security checkpoints for fluid that is being returned from the peripheral tissues to the central circulation. It makes sense that this fluid should be checked for pathogens only before being returned to the systemic highway system. In fact, physicians often discover underlying disease by the presence of enlarged or hardened lymph nodes during a physical exam. Conclusion the ability to fend off microbial invasion is critical to our survival. The immune system is housed in many locations in the body and involves many different organs and cell types. Nonspecific mechanisms, such as intact skin, mucous membranes, interferon, and lysozyme, constitute a first line of defense; these mechanisms also make up part of the innate immune system, which is capable of an immediate response but cannot learn from experience. The adaptive immune system, comprised of Tand B-lymphocytes, allows for our immune system to learn from past exposure. Thus, once we are infected with a certain strain of virus, activation of specific immunity confers long-term protection against that particular virus. In active immunization, our immune cells are stimulated in response, resulting in long-term immunity. Passive immunization results from the transfer of antibodies alone; therefore, the protection it provides is transient. They consist of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). Nonspecific defenses are activated immediately upon infection; however, they cannot learn from past exposure. Humoral immunity is more effective at combating bacterial infections, whereas cell-mediated immunity fights viral and fungal infections. Antibodies fight infection by binding to foreign antigens, thereby allowing other immune cells. The three major classes are helper T-cells, suppressor T-cells, and killer (cytotoxic) T-cells. Active immunization results in a sustained immune response mediated by B-cells, whereas the effects of passive immunization are short-lived. Natural immunization is the result of exposure to the antigen in nature or transfer of antibodies from mother to fetus. Artificial active immunization uses weakened or dead forms of microbes to generate an immune response without causing active infection. The lymphatic system is a secondary circulation system that removes excess fluid from the interstitial space. It also transports fat molecules from the intestinal epithelial cells to the bloodstream and serves as a conduit for the movement of immune cells. Active immunity requires weeks to build, whereas passive immunity is acquired immediately. Therefore, a patient who lacks T-cells would be prone to viral and fungal infections, as choice (A) indicates. B the lymphocytes involved in cell-mediated immunity are the T-lymphocytes, or T-cells. There are four types of T-cells, each playing a different role in cell-mediated immunity: cytotoxic Tcells, helper T-cells, memory T-cells, and suppressor T-cells. Thus, from the answer choices, the only cells not involved in cell-mediated immunity are the plasma cells, which are differentiated immunoglobulin-secreting B-lymphocytes involved in humoral immunity. B the main function of the lymphatic system is to collect excess interstitial fluid and return it to the circulatory system, maintaining the balance of body fluids. In addition, the lymphatic system absorbs chylomicrons from the small intestine and delivers them to the cardiovascular circulation. Transport of hormones and filtration of blood are not functions of the lymphatic system, so (A), (C), and (D) are incorrect.
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