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By: U. Nefarius, M.B. B.CH. B.A.O., M.B.B.Ch., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine
The absorptive properties of activated charcoal are effective beyond the gastric mucosa cholesterol levels british heart foundation buy atorlip-20 20 mg with mastercard, absorbing drugs throughout the small intestine cholesterol lowering foods list mayo clinic order 20mg atorlip-20 otc. The efficacy of cathartic use in reducing the absorption or increasing the elimination of toxins has not been established cholesterol levels average 20 mg atorlip-20 with mastercard. There is no published data demonstrating an improved outcome with cathartic use alone or combined with activated charcoal. In young children, it is recommended that activated charcoal be administered with water only, without any cathartic agent. The irrigation process is continued until the rectal effluent is clear, usually within 4 to 6 hours. The number of effective antidotes are limited (Table 107-11) and are not for indiscriminate use. Antidotal therapy should be used carefully and in clinical circumstances when specifically indicated. It is important to maintain a normal potassium level when performing alkalinization as appropriate alkalinization cannot be achieved when hypokalemia is present. These agents include sustained release products, calcium channel antagonists, theophylline, lithium, methadone, lomotil, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and oral hypogylycemic agents. If the adolescents are suicidal, obtain psychiatric consultation once they are stabilized. He is noted to be cool to the touch and hypothermic when his temperature is taken. A metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap may be found with which of the following agents following a toxic exposure? American Academy of Clinical Toxicology: Position statement and practice guidelines on the use of multidose activated charcoal in the treatment of acute poisoning. Erickson T, Thompson T, Lu J: the approach to the patient with an unknown overdose. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation may lead to hyperthermia with severe salicylate intoxication. Neuroleptic agents may also produce hyperthermia secondary to neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Agents that classically produce a metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap include iron, salicylates, cyanide, carbon monoxide, metformin, methanol, and ethylene glycol. This child is presenting with a classic anticholinergic toxidrome, which is most consistent with diphenhydramine (benadryl) ingestion. Other anticholinergic agents include cogentin, jimson weed, and cyclic antidepressants. Methamphetamines are sympathomimetics producing hyperthermia, hypertension, dilated pupils, and diaphoretic skin. Ketamine depresses the mental status, respiratory drive and classically causes drooling and nystagmus. Methadone and phenobarbital produce an opioid and sedative hypnotic syndrome, respectively. Single-dose activated charcoal is the most efficacious mode of gastric decontamination with the fewest side effects. Gastric lavage may still be indicated following a potentially life-threatening overdose presenting within 1 hour of ingestion. The vast majority of poisonings in children resolve with observation and supportive care alone and specific antidote therapy is generally not necessary, save for a few specific agents. Cyclic antidepressants are effectively treated with sodium bicarbonate administration, while Fab fragments are indicated for digitalis toxicity. Glucagon effectively reverses the clinical effects of b-blocker toxicity that includes bradycardia and hypotension. After a therapeutic dose, 90% of the drug is metabolized to inactive sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. Less fortunate patients develop progressive encephalopathy, renal failure, coagulopathy, and hyperammonemia.
Other effects include hyperthermia unesterified cholesterol definition order atorlip-20 20 mg overnight delivery, dehydration cholesterol levels hdl ldl order atorlip-20 pills in toronto, vomiting lowering cholesterol triglycerides diet cheap 20 mg atorlip-20 fast delivery, tremors, loss of control over body movements, insomnia, convulsions, rapid eye movements, and teeth and jaw clenching. Psychologic symptoms of intoxication include a subjective intensification of perceptions, depersonalization, illusions, hallucinations, and synesthesias, the overflow of one sensory modality to another. There is no observable physical withdrawal syndrome after abrupt discontinuation of hallucinogenic drugs. Flashbacks can occur spontaneously but are also triggered by other drugs, including marijuana, and by anxiety-provoking stimuli. Contrary to a widely held notion in the 1960s and early 1970s, there is no reliable evidence that hallucinogen use causes chromosome damage or genetic defects. Signs Tachycardia and conjunctival congestion may be observed in patients intoxicated with marijuana. According to the most recent Monitoring for the Future study, among 12th-graders 20. Most users smoke marijuana in hand-rolled cigarettes (joints), while some use pipes or water pipes (bongs). If marijuana is consumed in food or drink, the short-term effects begin more slowly, usually in 30 minutes to 1 hour, and last longer, for as long as 4 hours. Through its effects on the brain and body, marijuana intoxication can cause accidents. Hashish, the dried resin of the top of the plant, is much more potent than the plant itself. Increasingly sophisticated growing techniques have resulted in plants of greater potency. The average potency of marijuana increased in 2007 to the highest levels ever recorded, likely because of increased demand for higher-potency marijuana and improvements in cultivation techniques. Indoor cannabis cultivation is most prevalent in western states; however, indoor cultivation in eastern states, particularly Florida and Georgia, increased sharply in 2007. Chronic low doses of marijuana usually are not associated with significant physical withdrawal on abrupt discontinuation, but many chronic users exhibit compulsive drug-seeking and drug-use behaviors characteristic of addiction or dependence. Acutely, marijuana has many of the effects of alcohol-sedation, a decrease in reactivity and ability to perform complex tasks, and disinhibition. Chronic use is associated with all the risks of tobacco smoking, although marijuana smokers are commonly also tobacco smokers, and thus differentiation of effects is often difficult. Endocrine effects including amenorrhea, decreased testosterone production, and inhibition of spermatogenesis have been demonstrated. Marijuana is associated with an amotivational syndrome characterized by a behavioral pattern of apathy, dullness, impaired judgment, decreased concentration and memory, loss of interest in personal hygiene, and a general reduction of goal-directed behavior. Researchers have found that the daily use of one to three marijuana joints appears to produce approximately the same lung damage and potential cancer risk as smoking 5 times as many cigarettes. The study findings refute the argument that marijuana is safer than tobacco because users smoke only a few joints a day. Clearly, there is much more work to be done before the precise health and psychologic effects of marijuana use are well understood. This polarization of opinion has prevented the development of any consensus on what health information the medical profession should give to patients who are users or potential users of marijuana. Readers are referred to two excellent articles that attempt to summarize in a dispassionate way the evidence on the most probable adverse health and psychologic consequences of acute and chronic use of marijuana. Butyl nitrite, sold as tape head cleaner and referred to as "rush," "locker room," or "climax," is often sniffed or huffed to get high. Inhalants can be sniffed directly from an open container or huffed from a rag soaked in the substance and held to the face. Alternatively, the open container or soaked rag can be placed in a bag where the vapors can concentrate before being inhaled. Although inhalant abusers might prefer one particular substance because of taste or odor, a variety of substances can be used because of similar effects, availability, and cost. Once inhaled, the extensive capillary surface area of the lungs allows rapid absorption of the substance, and blood levels peak rapidly.
Antidotes the search for and use of an antidote should never replace good supportive care high cholesterol medication options atorlip-20 20mg amex. An evidenced-based consensus of experts has recommended minimum stocking requirements for 24 antidotes for acute care hospitals and that 12 be available for immediate administration upon patient arrival definition of cholesterol in nutrition buy discount atorlip-20 20mg line. Drugs used conventionally for nonpoisoning situations may act as antidotes to test your cholesterol with a simple photo order atorlip-20 mastercard reverse acute toxicity, such as insulin-dextrose or glucagon for -adrenergic blocker or calcium channel antagonist overdose and octreotide for sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia. Intralipid, have recently been used to reduce cardiac toxicity from several lipid-soluble drugs. During the first 12 to 24 hours after ingestion, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and diaphoresis may be observed; however, many patients are asymptomatic. During the next 1 to 3 days, which is a latent phase of lessened symptoms, patients often have an asymptomatic rise in liver enzymes and bilirubin. Signs and symptoms of hepatic injury become manifest 3 to 5 days after ingestion and include right upper quadrant abdominal tenderness, jaundice, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy. This metabolite normally is conjugated with glutathione, a sulfhydryl-containing compound, in the hepatocyte and excreted in the urine as a mercapturate conjugate. Despite the common ingestion of acetaminophen by young children, few develop hepatotoxicity from acute overdosage. The reduced fraction available for metabolism by the cytochrome system may explain the rare development of serious toxicity in young children who take large overdoses. Earlier treatment intervention and spontaneous emesis also may reduce the risk of toxicity in children. Risk Assessment There is a risk of developing hepatotoxicity when patients 6 years or older acutely ingest at least 10 g or 200 mg/kg, whichever is less, of acetaminophen or when children younger than 6 years acutely ingest 200 mg/kg or more. Initial symptoms, if present, do not predict how serious the toxicity eventually may become. It is available in various oral dosage forms, including extended-release preparations. Acetaminophen may be combined with other drugs, such as antihistamines or opioid analgesics, and marketed in cough and cold preparations, menstrual remedies, and allergy products. Some patients may not recognize that they are consuming several products containing acetaminophen which can increase the total daily dose taken and the subsequent risk of hepatotoxicity. Incidence Acetaminophen is one of the drugs most commonly ingested by small children and is used commonly in suicide attempts by 35 not advocated as a preventive measure, and it is difficult to account for its specific impact on care. Repeated ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of acetaminophen (defined for patients <6 years: 200 mg/kg over 8 to 24 hours, 150 mg/kg/day for 2 days, 100 mg/kg/day for 3 days or longer; for patients 6 years: 10 g or 200 mg/kg (whichever is less) over a single 24-hour period, 6 g or 150 mg/kg (whichever is less) per 24-hour period for 48 hours) has been associated with hepatotoxicity. The other lines on the nomogram indicate differing levels of risk for hepatotoxicity based on a multicenter study of 11,195 patients. When the results of the acetaminophen determination will be available later than 8 hours after the ingestion, acetylcysteine therapy should be initiated based on the history and later discontinued if the results indicate nontoxic concentrations. The nomogram has not been evaluated and thus is not useful for assessing chronic exposure to acetaminophen. Some have advocated that patients with chronic alcoholism should be treated with acetylcysteine regardless of the risk estimation. When excessive amounts are ingested, the history is unclear, or an intentional ingestion is suspected, the patient should be evaluated at an emergency department and acetaminophen serum concentrations obtained. Acetylcysteine (also known as N-acetylcysteine), a sulfhydrylcontaining compound, replenishes the hepatic stores of glutathione by serving as a glutathione surrogate that combines directly with reactive metabolites or by serving as a source of sulfate, thus preventing hepatic damage. Nomogram for assessing hepatotoxic risk following acute ingestion of acetaminophen. If a concentration is obtained less than 4 hours after ingestion, it is not interpretable, and a second determination should be done at least 4 hours after ingestion. Serial determinations of a serum concentration, 4 to 6 hours apart, typically are unnecessary unless there is some evidence of slowed gastrointestinal motility as the result of the ingestion of certain drugs. In these circumstances, therapy with acetylcysteine is continued if any concentration is above the treatment line of the nomogram, and provisional therapy is discontinued when both concentrations are below the treatment line. Although young children have an inherently lower risk of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, these patients should be managed in the same manner as adults. When acetaminophen serum concentrations predict that toxicity is probable, young children should receive acetylcysteine in the dosing regimen described previously.
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