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By: E. Mason, M.B. B.CH. B.A.O., M.B.B.Ch., Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Syracuse University
The cardiac apices may be obliterated erectile dysfunction symptoms causes order kamagra chewable mastercard, creating a characteristic echocardiographic picture erectile dysfunction and diet generic kamagra chewable 100 mg amex. The mitral and tricuspid valves are affected bph causes erectile dysfunction trusted kamagra chewable 100mg, leading to prominent atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Geographic, infectious, and metabolic factors have been implicated but not verified. Immunosuppressive therapy can reduce the burden of eosinophils and the cardiac injury caused by the eosinophilic granules. Endocardial injury can also result from the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid released by carcinoid tumors. The major sites affected are the tricuspid valve and right ventricular endocardium. Idiopathic Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy may occasionally be diagnosed in the absence of any specific cause. Although isolated systolic function may be relatively normal, the ejection fraction is usually in the 30 to 45% range, in which cardiac output may become compromised from restricted filling and secondary valvular regurgitation. For a given patient with slightly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and slightly elevated left ventricular volume, overt congestive symptoms and abnormal diastolic filling pattern suggest a restrictive cardiomyopathy, whereas a relative lack of symptoms is more consistent with a "minimally dilated cardiomyopathy. Restrictive disease occasionally occurs in families, in whom a genetic defect affecting myofilament relaxation has been postulated but not identified. Prolonged exposure to elevated filling pressures can cause irreversible pulmonary hypertension, analogous to that with mitral stenosis, and occasionally true cardiac cirrhosis before diagnosis. When congestive symptoms develop, they may be dominated by refractory pleural effusions, ascites, and sometimes dramatic cachexia. The theoretical rationale for calcium channel blockers to improve diastolic relaxation has not been confirmed by clinical results; a reduction in venous return without a concomitant improvement in ventricular compliance can markedly reduce cardiac output. Despite relatively preserved ejection fraction, these patients can sometimes be helped only with cardiac transplantation, which should be done before severe inanition develops. In general, survival with restrictive disease is slightly better than for patients with a similar severity of symptoms but lower ejection fraction from dilated cardiomyopathy. Generally inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, the mutations may also occur spontaneously. The phenotypic expression of the disease varies markedly between and within families. The cardinal features are marked left ventricular hypertrophy not due to other cardiac disease, frequently with asymmetrical involvement of the septum, accompanied by supranormal ejection fraction and decreased left ventricular systolic cavity dimension. Pathologically, the myocytes show marked disarray in a characteristic whorled pattern and disorganization of the larger muscle bundles as well. The descriptor "obstructive" or "non-obstructive" refers to whether a pressure gradient that impedes left ventricular outflow can be detected at rest or with maneuvers that decrease left ventricular volume. Previous names for this syndrome included asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, and idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, but these have been largely replaced by the term hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The affected ventricle is hypercontractile with a supranormal ejection fraction, at times almost obliterating the left ventricular cavity. Diastolic distensibility is markedly limited, leading to elevated filling pressures that can cause shortness of breath. Filling pressures rise further and aggravate dyspnea when the heart rate accelerates during exercise or atrial fibrillation. Myocardial ischemia despite the absence of epicardial coronary artery disease can cause anginal-type chest pain owing to the increased oxygen demands and reduced oxygen delivery for the hypertrophied ventricle with high intracavitary pressures. Outflow obstruction, present or inducible in about 25% of patients, is caused by apposition of the anterior mitral valve leaflet to the septum and can elevate filling pressures further and compromise forward output. When present, the midsystolic gradient can approach levels seen in severe aortic stenosis. The gradient may be elicited or enhanced by maneuvers that decrease left ventricular volume, such as vasodilation, the Valsalva maneuver, or standing after squatting. Enhanced contractility also aggravates the gradient, as for the beat after a premature ventricular contraction (Brockenbrough phenomenon). Syncope can result from an increased gradient leading to decreased cardiac output, from elevated intraventricular pressures activating vagal reflexes, or from ventricular arrhythmias arising within the areas of abnormal myocyte organization. Most patients present between ages 20 and 40, although occasional patients present after age 50. Presenting symptoms may be dyspnea on exertion, chest pain, palpitations, or syncope.
This postulate is strongly supported by pre-clinical findings cheap erectile dysfunction pills online uk order cheap kamagra chewable, as well as by the enhanced antithrombotic effects produced by aspirin and ticlopidine in patients undergoing endovascular stenting icd 9 code erectile dysfunction due diabetes buy genuine kamagra chewable line. Clinical trials are presently evaluating the potential usefulness of combined aspirin and clopidogrel erectile dysfunction cream 16 kamagra chewable 100 mg otc. Because these agents also impair platelet hemostatic function, their use is generally reserved for transient interruption of high-risk thrombosis. Three fibrinogen receptor antagonists are presently available for parenteral use: abciximab (humanized monoclonal antibody), eptifibatide (synthetic cyclic peptide), and tirofiban (synthetic antagonist). Aspirin, clopidogrel, or ticlopidine decrease the risk of thrombo-occlusion and thromboembolism for all major vascular distributions, irrespective of the anatomic site producing symptoms (Table 188-2). Although aspirin therapy is associated with a small increase in hemorrhagic stroke, the overall reduction in all strokes far outweighs that complication. Although dipyridamole has recently been reported to enhance the effects of aspirin, this outcome is inconsistent with previous controlled trials reporting that aspirin alone produces equivalent outcomes to the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole and that dipyridamole alone fails to prevent subsequent stroke when compared with placebo. Although there is much less experience in acute ischemic coronary syndromes, the available evidence suggests that clopidogrel or ticlopidine may exhibit similar effects. Free and fibrin-bound thrombin is inactivated by direct thrombin inhibitors such as hirudin, bivalirudin, or argatroban. These agents effectively block platelet recruitment into the thrombus, regardless of the inducing mechanism (see. Because effective antithrombotic doses of these agents concurrently inhibit platelet hemostasis, abnormal bleeding may complicate their use, particularly in association with invasive procedures. To maintain graft patency without increasing surgical bleeding, patients undergoing saphenous vein or internal mammary artery aortocoronary grafting should receive aspirin (325 mg/day) within hours after completing the procedure and continue aspirin therapy for 1 year. Nevertheless, aspirin is often recommended in individuals whose principal risk is coronary artery disease (see Chapters 59 and 60). Low-dose aspirin (100 mg daily) and oral anticoagulation are more effective than coumarin anticoagulants alone in reducing the thromboembolic complications of mechanical heart valves (see Chapter 63). However, adding aspirin to anticoagulant therapy increases the incidence of serious gastrointestinal bleeding when the dose of aspirin exceeeds 100 mg/day. When aspirin fails or is contraindicated, dipyridamole (100 mg four times daily) in combination with oral anticoagulant therapy is currently recommended in patients with mechanical heart valves in the aortic and mitral positions. Alternatively, ticlopidine (or clopidogrel) may also be used in addition to oral anticoagulation to reduce thromboembolic occlusive events complicating the placement of mechanical heart valves. The combination of aspirin and ticlopidine (or clopidogrel) reduces vascular occlusive events in patients with peripheral vascular disease who are undergoing grafting procedures and in hemodialysis patients receiving arteriovenous access grafts. However, these therapies fail to decrease the formation of stenotic anastomotic vascular lesion formation, which is the principal underlying cause of graft failure. Combining aspirin and ticlopidine (or presumably aspirin and clopidogrel) therapy for several weeks following the deployment of coronary artery endovascular stents substantially decreases stent thrombotic vascular occlusion when compared with aspirin alone (see Chapter 61). Thrombo-occlusive events complicate coronary angioplasty in high-risk patients despite treatment with aspirin and heparin (See Chapters 61). Resistance to aspirin is explained by the dominance of thrombin, as opposed to thromboxane A2 in mediating the thrombogenic process initiated by mechanical vascular injury. Resistance to heparin is attributable to the inaccessibility of bound thrombin to inhibition by the heparin-antithrombin complex, together with the local heparin-inhibiting effects of proteins secreted by activated platelets (platelet factor 4). By blocking this final common pathway regulating platelet recruitment, the participation of platelets in thrombus formation is abolished. Aspirin at 1 mg/kg is as effective as higher doses in the majority of patients at risk. Because just 10% non-aspirin-treated platelets in the circulation are sufficient to generate full thromboxane A2 -dependent platelet aggregation in the blood of aspirin-treated patients, aspirin should be given every day to inhibit newly formed platelets. Larger doses of aspirin (1 g/day) have been recommended for stroke-prone patients by some neurologists, who reason that dose-response data are inadequate in stroke trials and platelet aggregation results suggest the possibility of resistance to aspirin inhibition. However, because the gastrointestinal complications of aspirin are dose dependent, most practitioners prescribe daily aspirin at a dose of 75 to 325 mg. Ticlopidine in combination with aspirin is currently used in patients undergoing coronary artery stenting.
The marked increase in the use of chemotherapeutic agents to impotence meds generic 100mg kamagra chewable with mastercard treat malignant disease and immune disorders suggests that these drugs may now be the most common cause of megaloblastic anemia in the Western hemisphere erectile dysfunction treatment on nhs purchase cheap kamagra chewable on-line. In folate deficiency erectile dysfunction water pump discount kamagra chewable 100 mg otc, all forms of folate are reduced within cells, which impairs the growth and maturation of rapidly growing cells such as those in the bone marrow. For example, thymidylate synthase catalyzes the synthesis of thymidine from deoxyuridine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. Cobalamin functions as an essential cofactor for only two enzymes in human cells, methionine synthase and L-methylmalonyl coenzyme A (CoA) mutase. Methionine synthase catalyzes the recycling of homocysteine to methionine; this reaction requires 5-methylcobalamin as a coenzyme (see. Methionine, an essential amino acid for protein synthesis, also serves in the form of S-adenosylmethionine as the major methyl donor in numerous important enzymatic reactions. In cobalamin deficiency, increasing amounts of intracellular folate are converted to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in an attempt to prevent intracellular methionine deficiency. Homocysteine accumulates in cobalamin deficiency because of a lack of methylcobalamin and in folate deficiency because of a lack of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Thus cobalamin deficiency results in secondary intracellular deficiency of all forms of folate except 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. As a result, the activities of all of the enzymes using folate to transfer one-carbon moieties, including thymidylate synthase, are impaired. This concept of "methylfolate trapping" explains why cobalamin deficiency and folate deficiency produce indistinguishable hematologic abnormalities and why the hematologic abnormalities seen in cobalamin deficiency can be completely reversed by pharmacologic amounts of folic acid. The latter oxidized, non-physiologic form of folate can be directly reduced to tetrahydrofolate without initially being converted to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This concept also explains why the hematologic abnormalities caused by folate deficiency respond only slightly, if at all to large amounts of cobalamin. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities are seen in cobalamin deficiency and appear to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. Because these abnormalities are not seen in folate deficiency, it has been tempting to ascribe them to deficient activity of the second cobalamin-dependent enzyme, L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, which is unrelated to any folate-dependent enzyme or pathway. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by using adenosylcobalamin as a required coenzyme (see. Abnormal odd-carbon and branched-chain fatty acids are formed when the mutase is impaired. The neuropsychiatric abnormalities of cobalamin deficiency are not seen, however, in individuals with genetic defects of the mutase reaction caused either by primary defects in the enzyme itself or by defects in the formation of adenosylcobalamin. Impairment of methionine synthase has also been postulated as the cause of neuropsychiatric abnormalities in view of the importance of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine for the many methylation reactions occurring in the nervous system. As noted, however, the neuropsychiatric abnormalities caused by cobalamin deficiency are not seen in folate deficiency, although methionine synthase appears to be equally impaired in both vitamin deficiencies (based on similar marked elevations in serum homocysteine concentrations). Genetic defects in which the synthesis of both adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin is impaired do lead Figure 163-2 Reactions involved in the metabolism of D- and L-methylmalonyl coenzyme A(CoA). Methylmalonic acid accumulates in cobalamin deficiency because of a lack of adenosylcobalamin (Adenosyl-Cbl), which leads to an increase in L-methylmalonyl-CoA, which is converted to D-methylmalonyl-CoA and hydrolyzed to methylmalonic acid. These observations suggest that both cobalamin-dependent enzymes must be impaired for neuropsychiatric abnormalities to develop and that the two cobalamin-dependent enzymes or pathways are connected or interrelated in a way that is not yet understood. Cobalamin is not present in plants; until recently, humans obtained their cobalamin exclusively from animal products. During the last half of the 20th century, humans have received increasing amounts of dietary cobalamin from multivitamin supplements taken in the form of pills and as additives to many food preparations. The stomach is also the site of synthesis of intrinsic factor, which binds free cobalamin with high affinity and plays an essential role in cobalamin absorption. Gastric juice contains another cobalamin binding protein that originates in saliva and has a more rapid or "R"-type electrophoretic mobility than does intrinsic factor. R protein binds cobalamin with a higher affinity than does intrinsic factor, particularly at an acid pH. Thus under normal conditions of gastric acidity, dietary cobalamin enters the duodenum bound to R protein. Additional cobalamin bound to R protein enters the duodenum after secretion into bile by the liver (the only significant route by which cobalamin is lost from the body).
In ulcerative colitis impotence with condoms kamagra chewable 100 mg online, inflammation begins in the rectum erectile dysfunction and diabetes treatment order kamagra chewable on line, extends proximally a certain distance impotence after 60 discount 100 mg kamagra chewable visa, and then abruptly stops, with a clear demarcation between involved and uninvolved mucosa. In mild disease, there are superficial erosions, whereas in more severe disease, ulcers may be large but superficial, penetrating the muscularis mucosa only in very severe disease. Most of the pathologic findings in ulcerative colitis are limited to the mucosa and submucosa; the muscularis propria is affected only in fulminant disease. Active ulcerative colitis is marked by neutrophils in the mucosa and submucosa and clumps of neutrophils in crypt lumens (crypt abscesses). There is mucus depletion, mucosal edema, and vascular congestion with focal hemorrhage. In addition to signs of acute activity, there are also signs of chronicity, with lymphoid aggregates, plasma cells, mast cells, and eosinophils in the lamina propria. The mesentery, which is thickened, edematous, and contracted, fixes the intestine in one position. As the disease progresses, aphthous ulcers enlarge and become stellate or serpiginous. Eventually, the stellate ulcers coalesce to form longitudinal and transverse linear ulcers. Fissures develop from the base of ulcers and extend down through the muscularis to the serosa. Lymphoid aggregates are found in the submucosa and external to the muscularis propria. The dominant symptom in ulcerative colitis is diarrhea, which is usually associated with blood in the stool (Table 135-2). Bowel movements are frequent but small in volume as a result of irritability of the inflamed rectum. Six or more bowel movements per day with blood, fever, anemia, and sedimentation rate greater than 30 mm/hr. Other symptoms include fever and pain, which may be in either lower quadrant or in the rectum. Some patients, especially elderly persons, complain of constipation rather than diarrhea because rectal spasm prevents the passage of stool. The initial attack of ulcerative colitis may be fulminant with bloody diarrhea, but more commonly the disease begins indolently, with non-bloody diarrhea progressing to bloody diarrhea. Ulcerative colitis can present initially with any extent of anatomic involvement, from disease confined to the rectum to pancolitis. Most commonly, ulcerative colitis follows a chronic intermittent course with long periods of quiescence interspersed with acute attacks lasting weeks to months; however, a significant percentage of patients suffer a chronic continuous course. In ulcerative colitis of mild to moderate severity, there may be tenderness over the affected area of the colon, and rectal examination may reveal tenderness or blood on the glove. Anemia and an elevated leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are useful in confirming severe disease and in following the clinical course of a severe exacerbation. The predominant symptoms are diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss; any of these three symptoms may be most prominent in a given individual. The initial presentation may not be dramatic; patients may complain for months or years with vague abdominal pain and intermittent diarrhea before the diagnosis is considered. In patients with colonic disease, especially with rectal involvement, diarrhea is of small volume and associated with urgency and tenesmus. Inflammation in the rectum causes a loss of distensibility; the entry of even a small amount of stool into a non-distensible rectum causes an immediate and urgent need to defecate. Prolonged inflammation and scarring in the rectum can leave it so rigid and non-distensible that the patient is incontinent. In disease confined to the small intestine, stools are of larger volume and not associated with urgency or tenesmus. Patients with severe involvement of the terminal ileum and those who have had surgical resections of the terminal ileum may have bile salt diarrhea or steatorrhea.